Description of the branches:
Histopathology: It is a branch of pathology which deals with the microscopic examination of human tissues. It helps examine a biopsy or surgical specimen by putting them onto glass slides. The examination involves surgery, biopsy, or autopsy. The tissues are removed from the body and placed in fixative to stabilize them and prevent decay. One of the most common fixatives is formalin. While looking at them under a microscope, some sections are stained with pigments to set them apart. It is very useful in detection of cancer.
Biochemistry: Biochemistry deals with examination of different aspects of disease by identifying changes in different substances in bodily fluids. These substances are proteins, electrolytes, cells, hormones, etc. The changes in their level can tell if the patient is suffering from a particular disease. It also helps identify and measure tumor markers, poisons, vitamins, medications and recreational drugs.
Microbiology: It is a field which deals with the diseases caused by pathogens like virus, fungi, bacteria, parasites, etc. In Microbiology, bodily fluids, blood and tissue are examined to find out if there is an infection in the body. It helps in finding out which pathogen is causing the disease so the patient can be treated accordingly.