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Do you know you can be suffering from obesity without even knowing about it? Obesity is a disease where the body suffers from an excessive amount of body fat. It is a medical problem that increases the risk of heart diseases, BP, diabetes, and in some cases cancers. It occurs because of a combination of different factors including environmental factors, diet, and physical activities.

According to Prevalence of obesity in India: A systematic review by Rajeev Ahirwar and Prakash Ranjan Mondal, in India, more than 13 crore people suffer from obesity with the prevalence rate of 11.8% to 31.3%. Let’s see some of the most common causes of obesity.

Genetics affect your metabolism and how your body processes food.

  • Sedentary lifestyle leads to low physical activity.
  • Uneven sleep cycle leads to hormonal changes which make you feel hungrier. OSA – Obstructive sleep apnea.
  • Pregnancy weight can be difficult to lose which eventually leads to obesity.
  • Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) causes imbalance of female reproductive hormones which aids in weight gain.
  • Hypothyroidism also leads to obesity because of the lack of important hormones.

The good news is that morbid obesity can be cured using surgical methods. These are some of the surgical solutions of obesity.

  • Gastric bypass: In this surgery, food intake and its absorption is restricted. Some part of the stomach is closed off which leads to low intake of food in a single sitting. The small part of the stomach is attached to the small intestine and thus food bypasses the stomach and it leads to low absorption.
  • Mini Gastric Bypass: In this surgery, a part of the stomach is attached to the lower part of the small intestine.
  • Sleeve Gastrectomy : It is also called stomach stapling. It is done by applying staples or to the stomach.

Surgical treatments for obesity are gaining a lot of traction. But it is important to choose the best in the healthcare industry for long lasting results. Contact Radiance hospital and book your appointment for surgical treatment of Obesity.

Written By : Radiance Hospital

People often attribute being over or underweight to their genes To some extent research has backed this assertion, suggesting that genetics contributes to obesity by influencing things like metabolism, body fat distribution, food cravings and tendency to eat food as a way to cope with stress. The latter two are the aspects that the mental health professionals focus on.

According to the world health organization, patients with a history of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and schizophrenia, have a greater chance of becoming obese. Furthermore, a study found that obese patients suffered from depression as intense as those experiencing chronic pain. This led to the conclusion that a history of mental illness may increase the risk of obesity, while obesity may increase an individual’s chances of developing a psychiatric disorder.

Obesity is largely consequent upon overconsumption of energy-rich foods, and some of the medications prescribed for schizophrenia can enhance cravings for ‘junk’ food, as well as having other effects that add to the obesity risk profile. The link between psychiatric medication and obesity may be due to the fact that psychotropic drugs not only contribute to weight gain but also create changes in the sensitivity of the body to insulin. Psychiatric complaints can also cause obesity as a result of medication effects, hormone imbalances, and the behavioral issues that result from psychiatric disorders. So it needs to be ensured that psychiatrists do not risk their patients by exposing them to obesity by using medication known to be associated with substantial weight gain, unless there is no clinically sustainable alternative to cure the mental condition of the individual.

Age and gender of a patient can determine the strength of the link between obesity and mental illness. A study in South Africa conducted found that young women were most at risk for mental illness if obese. The researcher postulated that this is a result of women being inclined to be more distressed about the perception of being overweight than men, making them susceptible to mental illness.

Depression and low self-esteem have been observed in obese patients around the world, even when there has been no previous history of mental illness. Poor self-image, physical inactivity, the biological disruptions caused by obesity, and the social stigma related to being overweight all contribute to a predisposition to mental illness. So mentioned here are some lifestyle interventions that can help obese patients:

  1. Psycho-education and advice about diet and exercise involving experts, psychiatrists, and dieticians.
  2. Monitoring of weight, waist circumference and serum glucose, lipids levels
  3. Involving people in this process that can mentally influence them and in the process help them to take ownership of the problem and empower them.

However in some cases due to complex neurobiology processes mentioned above, lifestyle intervention may not be enough. Bariatric surgery in its current form is a relatively safe and effective intervention to treat obesity in mentally ill people.

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Are adolescent with Obesity at a higher risk of Hypertension?

Written By : Dr. Apurva Vyas
Youth hypertension with Obesity

Blood pressure is required for blood to flow and carry oxygen to vital organs of the human body. But it is when; this Blood pressure gets too high results into Hypertension. This may harm the arteries and cause the heart to work harder. More of adult medical conditions, but nowadays youth falling prey to it.

Risk Factors that lead to developing hypertension in adolescents include

  • Family history has been linked to a higher risk
  • Racial predilection has been seen, the African-American population is at higher risk
  • Increasing body mass index
  • Low birth weight and intra-uterine growth retardation
  • Increased sodium consumption

Diagnosis of Hypertension in teenager emphasizes on

  1. Going through Patient History: A thorough history is essential in guiding the evaluation and management of a hypertensive adolescent
  2. Physical Examination: A comprehensive physical examination could give hint about the underlying cause of hypertension in children and the presence of target organ damage.
  3. Blood Pressure Measurement: The American Academy of Pediatrics, the European Society of Hypertension and the European Society of Cardiology recommend regular blood pressure screening in children above the age of 3 years at routine health visits.
  4. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring uses a device that can be worn for 24 hours. It takes multiple blood pressure readings and can help get a more accurate reading of overall blood pressure.

Management of Hypertension in Youth can be achieved by

  1. Therapeutic Lifestyle Modification: Enhances on dietary management, increased physical activity, stress reduction and avoidance of drug and tobacco use. Dietary management should include age appropriate, a salt-restricted diet with an emphasis on weight loss in overweight or obese children.
  2. Pharmacological Therapy: Children who are symptomatic, who have diabetes or end organ damage such as left ventricular hypertrophy should all be prescribed antihypertensive medication. In addition, children with persistent hypertension after 6–12 months of instituting a heart-healthy lifestyle should also be prescribed a medication to lower their BP.
  3. Antihypertensive medications: Combination of drugs recommended if BP control is not achieved with a single drug.

Reports show the reversal of target organ damage following the institution of antihypertensive therapy in children. Seeman et al reported a regression in Left Ventricular Hypertension in a small pediatric cohort treated with ramipril (Antihypertensive medication) monotherapy over a 6-month period.

Other forms of therapy

The emerging trend of utilizing bariatric surgery for reversing morbid obesity in adolescents is gaining awareness. Teen-LABS consortium published the largest series of prospectively collected data on 242 adolescent patients with a mean age of 17.1 (+/−1.6) and BMI of 53. Here in the patient’s Mean weight decreased by 28% with gastric bypass and 26% with sleeve gastrectomy, which was sustained at 3 years. Weight loss, the first line treatment with obesity-related hypertension leads to a decrease in Symptomatic hyperactivity, thereby lowering BP, providing experimental evidence for effective treatment of obesity-related hypertension.

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Bariatric Surgery: The solution of Obesity surgery for Diabetes type 2

Written By : Dr. Apurva Vyas
Obesity surgery for diabetes

Diabetes is one of the most common medical conditions which affect more than 150 million people worldwide. Owing to the dynamic lifestyles of people nowadays, at least 90% of the people have Diabetes type 2 which is related to Obesity, overweight, family history, insufficient physical activity or old age.

Obesity is a medical condition that is related to diabetes and occurs when a person carries excess weight or body fat, so as affecting the person’s health. A medical expert would say a person with high Body Mass Index is Obese.

Types of Diabetes:

  1. Diabetes Type 1- it is believed to be an autoimmune condition.
  2. Diabetes Type 2- your body can’t use insulin efficiently.
  3. Gestational- occurs only during pregnancy

Generally, metformin is the medication prescribed for type 2 diabetes. It works by improving the sensitivity of your body tissues to insulin so that your body uses insulin more effectively.

The most common amongst all is diabetes type 2. Risk factors for type 2 diabetes include:

  • having a sedentary lifestyle
  • being overweight
  • having had gestational diabetes or prediabetes

Although diabetes is traditionally viewed as a chronic, relentless disease in which delay of end-organ complications is the major treatment goal, bariatric surgery offers a novel endpoint: major improvement or even complete disease remission. For obesity, it is one of the most popular and safe methods. Evidence suggests that bariatric or metabolic surgery for obesity may lower death rates for severely obese patients, especially when coupled with healthy eating and lifestyle changes after surgery.

Though bariatric surgery for obesity or weight loss surgery includes a variety of procedures performed on people who are obese, the basic principle of weight loss is achieved by the following methods:

  1. Sleeve Gastrectomy: Reducing the size of the stomach through removal of a portion of the stomach. This approach resulted in reduced surgical morbidity and mortality compared with the traditional one-stage approach highly obese patients. Unexpectedly, patients achieved remarkable weight loss after the first stage and SG.
  2. RYGBP: This is the most common amongst all. By resecting and re-routing the small intestines to a small stomach pouch. After RYGBP, ingested food bypasses most of the stomach and the first part of the small intestine. (gastric bypass surgery)
  3. Restricting food intake and decreasing the absorption of food in the stomach and intestines.

Results:

  • Average 77 % of excess body weight is lost in one year after surgery
  • A study shows that after 10 to 14 years, patients have maintained 60 % of excess body weight loss. A study of 500 patients showed that 96 % of physical problems were improved and resolved in some cases which mainly includes back pain, sleep apnea, high blood pressure, type 2 diabetes and depression.
  • In most cases, patients report an early sense of fullness even by taking little food so that there will be no desire to take more food

Bariatric surgery can help in prevention of diabetes and helps weight loss through gastric bypass in obese patients. Also, non-diabetic patients can decrease their likelihood of developing diabetes by 60 percent.

One long-term study tracked 400 people with type 2 diabetes. Six years after bariatric surgery, 62% showed no signs of diabetes. They also had better blood pressure, cholesterol, and triglyceride levels.

In a recent study, over 20,000 patients were examined. It revealed that 84% who underwent obesity surgery for diabetes experienced complete reversal of their type 2 diabetes.

Rapid improvement in blood sugars and reduction or elimination of diabetic medications is often seen within the immediate period following bariatric surgery for diabetes type 2.

 

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How To Avoid Weight Gain After Bariatric Surgery (Weight loss surgery)

Written By : Dr. Apurva Vyas